Neurophilosophy Graduate Seminar


Normativity, Naturalism, and Neuroethics

 

Introduction to Neurophilosophy:
Wittgenstein on logic and mathematics

Professors Dr. Nythamar de Oliveira and Dr. John Bolender

CREDITS: 03 - YEAR/SEMESTER: 2017/II

Tuesdays 9:00 a.m. - 11:30 a.m.
Room 309 Building 40 (Museum of Science and Technology at PUCRS)

Download here the syllabus for "Intro to Neurophilosophy" 2017/2 (PDF in English)

 

0. COURSE DESCRIPTION:

This course will begin with a brief introduction to the philosophy of mind and language, before proceeding to explore Wittgenstein’s philosophy of logic and mathematics. No previous knowledge of philosophy of mind or philosophy of logic and mathematics is required. All classes, readings and discussions will be conducted in English.
The aim of this seminar is to show not only how Wittgenstein meant to refute older metaphysical approaches to these subjects, but also to show how his work has the potential to interface with contemporary natural logic and generative linguistics. The course may also serve as an advanced introduction to, and overview of, Wittgenstein’s thought.

Tentative Schedule of Presentations / Reading Assignments (2017/2):

Aug 8th, 2017 : Introduction to Neurophilosophy & Philosophy of Mind; Course Description and Syllabus, Bibliographies & Reading Assignments; Self-Introductions; Instructors’ Presentations: Professors Nythamar de Oliveira & John Bolender

All reading assignments are available in PDF right here (Google Drive)

1 Logic: Factual or empty? Bertrand Russell, Theory of Knowledge, Chapter IX, “Logical Data”; Ludwig Wittgenstein, Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus (TLP), §§4.0312 - 5.135

2 Recursion in logic and mathematics TLP, §§5.5 -- 5.511; TLP, §§6 -- 6.031

3 Comparison of logic and mathematics TLP, §§6.1 - 6.241

4 Logical form and measurement scales “Some Remarks on Logical Form”; Philosophical Remarks (PR), Chapter VIII

5 Logical analysis PR, Chapter XXI; Philosophical Grammar (PG), pp. 210-14

6 Logical spaces (plural) PR, Chapter IV; PG, pp. 202-07; Lectures, Cambridge 1930-1933 (WLC), Lent term 1930 III & V

7 Defining number Russell, Introduction to Mathematical Philosophy, Chapter II, Definition of Number; Ludwig Wittgenstein and the Vienna Circle, pp. 164-65, 221-26; Philosophical Investigations, §§65 -- 71

8 Infinity PG, pp. 451-86

9 Grammar (WLC), May term 1933

10 Continuing a series Remarks on the Foundations of Mathematics (RFM), §§I-1 -- I-23; Lectures on the Foundations of Mathematics (LFM), Lectures I, II, & III

11 Proof RFM, §§I-24 -- I-112

12 Machine-symbols RFM, §§I-113 -- I-133; LFM, Lecture XX

13 Contradiction LFM, Lectures XXI through XXIV

14 Logic and experience Remarks on Colour, pp. 17-53

Previous Editions:
Spring 2017/1
This course will begin with a brief introduction to the philosophy of mind, especially the theory of mind-body dualism and the views that the mind and body are two distinct substances. We will then explore some of the major problems and key concepts of a philosophy of neuroscience, neurophilosophy, and neuroethics. Just like the discussions that took place in analytic philosophy, especially after the "epistemological turn" and the "linguistic turn," neurophilosophy as it has been practiced in the US, the UK, France, Germany and elsewhere, follows very specific guidelines in terms of how to do science and how philosophy relates to cognitive science. We will thus focus on transdisciplinary and interdisciplinary methodological issues in neurophilosophy, so as to highlight some lines of research linking neuroscience and philosophy in Anglo-American and Continental contexts of research. No previous knowledge of philosophy of mind or neurophilosophy is required.
All classes, readings and discussions will be conducted in English.



Mar 21 : Ch. 25: Nagel, What's it like to be a bat? [Fabricio]
Bertrand Russell, Problems of Philosophy (excerpts) [John]

Mar 28 : Neuro Talks: Prof. Dr. Gabriel Mograbi (UFMT), Objective, Subjective and Intersubjective Aspects of Decisions: A Neurophilosophical Approach

Apr 4 : Ch. 1: René Descartes, Meditations on First Philosophy (II and VI) [Nythamar]
Ch. 2: Descartes, Passions of the Soul [N]

Apr 11 : Ch. 9: J. J. C. Smart, Sensations and Brain Processes [J]
Ch.12: Armstrong, The Causal Theory of the Mind [Rodrigo]

Apr 18 : Ch. 5: Gilbert Ryle, Descartes' Myth [N]
Ch. 26: Daniel C. Dennett, Quining Qualia [J]

Apr 25 : Ch. 36: Churchland, Rediscovery of Light [F]
Ch. 17: Donald Davidson, Mental Events [N]

May 2 : Eric Schwitzgebel, Do Things Look Flat? [J]
Ch. 44: Brentano, The distinction between mental and physical phenomena [F]

May 9 : Ch.13: Lewis, Psychophysical and Theoretical Identifications [R]
Ch.15: Martine Nida-Rumelin, Pseudonormal Vision: An Actual Case of Qualia Inversion? [J]

May 16 : Ludwig Wittgenstein, Philosophical Remarks, chapters VI and VII [J]

May 23 : Ch.14: Block, Trouble with Functionalism [R]
Ch. 52: Dennett, True believers [F]

May 30 : Ch.46: Dretske, A Recipe for Thought [R]
Ch. 54: Hilary Putnam, The Meaning of "Meaning" [N]

Jun 6 : Ch.51: Fodor, Propositional Attitudes [R]
Ch. 41: Christopher Peacocke, Sensation and the Content of Experience [J]

Jun 13 : Ch. 56: David Chalmers, The Components of Content [J]
Ch. 53: Churchland, Eliminative Materialism and the Propositional Attitudes [F]

Jun 20 : Augusto Buchweitz (InsCer): Neuroeducation: brain, biological and behavioral indices
Alexandre Franco (InsCer): Neuroimaging - fMRI

Preliminary Bibliography:

Appiah, K.A. 2008. Experiments in Ethics. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press.

Bear, Mark, Barry Connors & Michael Paradiso. 2006. Neuroscience: Exploring the Brain Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Third edition.

Bennett, M. R. & P. M. S. Hacker. 2003. Fundamentos filosóficos da neurociência. Lisboa: Instituto Piaget.

Bickle, John (editor) 2008. Oxford Handbook of Philosophy and Neuroscience. Oxford U Press.

Brogaard, Berit (editor). 2014a. Does Perception Have Content? Oxford University Press.

Brogaard, Berit. 2014b. "Against Naturalism about Truth". In Kelly Clark, ed. Blackwell Companion to Naturalism.

Brogaard, Berit. 2014c. "What Can Neuroscience Tell Us About Reference?" In: Handbook on Reference, Barbara Abbott and Jeanette Gundel (eds.), Oxford University Press.

Bueno, Otavio and Scott A. Shalkowski. 2015a. "Modalism and Theoretical Virtues: Toward an Epistemology of Modality." Philosophical Studies

Bueno, Otavio and Scott A. Shalkowski. 2015b. "Empirically Grounded Philosophical Theorizing." In Chris Daly, ed., The Palgrave Handbook of Philosophical Methods. Hampshire: Palgrave.

Bueno, Otavio and Jonas R. Becker Arenhart. 2015.
"Structural realism and the nature of structure." Forthcoming in European Journal for Philosophy of Science.

Bueno, Otavio. 2014a. "Why Identity is Fundamental." American Philosophical Quarterly 51 (2014): 41-48.

Bueno, Otavio. 2014b. "The Phenomenology of Paradoxes: Objective Features of Mental States." Forthcoming in Journal of Experimental and Theoretical AI.

Bunge, Mario. 2003. Emergence and Convergence: Qualitative Novelty and the Unity of Knowledge. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.

Chalmers, David J. 2002. Philosophy of Mind: Classical and Contemporary Readings. Oxford University Press.

Changeux, Jean-Pierre & Paul Ricoeur. 1998. Ce qui nous fait penser. La nature et la règle. Paris: Odile Jacob.

Churchland, Patricia S. 1986. Neurophilosophy: Toward A Unified Science of the Mind-Brain. Bradford Books. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Churchland, Patricia. 2002. Brain-Wise: Studies in neurophilosophy. New York: Bradford Books.

Churchland, P. 2008. "The impact of neuroscience on philosophy". Neuron, 60, 409-411.

Churchland, Patricia. 2011. Braintrust: What neuroscience tells us about morality.Princeton U Press.

Churchland, Paul M. 1984. Matter and Consciousness. Cambridge, MA: Bradford Books, MIT Press.

Churchland, P. M. 1994. The Engine of Reason, The Seat of the Soul: A Philosophical Journey into the Brain. Cambridge: MIT Press.

Churchland, P.S., and T. J. Sejnowski. 1992. The Computational Brain: Models and Methods on the Frontiers of Computational Neuroscience. Cambridge, MA: Bradford Books, MIT Press.

Costa, Claudio. 2005. Filosofia da Mente. Rio de Janeiro: Jorge Zahar Editor.

Damásio, António. 2010. Self Comes to Mind: Constructing the conscious brain. New York: Pantheon Books.

Damásio, António. 2003. Looking for Spinoza: Joy, sorrow and the feeling brain. New York: Harcourt, Inc.

Damásio, António. 1999. The feeling of what happens: Body and emotion in the making of consciousness. New York: Harcourt Brace.

Damásio, António. 1994. Descartes’ Error: Emotion, reason, and the human brain. New York: Putnam. Em português: O Erro de Descartes: Emoção, razão e o cérebro humano. 2a. edição. São Paulo: Companhia das Letras, 2005.

Dancy, Jonathan. 2000. Normativity. Malden, Mass.: Blackwell.

Darwin, Charles. 1872. The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals. New York: New York Philosophical Library. (Reprint, 1960).

Darwin, Charles. 1980. Metaphysics, Materialism, and the Evolution of Mind: Early Writings of Charles Darwin. Transcribed and annotated by Paul H. Barrett with a commentary by Howard E. Gruber. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.

Darwin, Charles. 1981. The Descent of Man, and Selection in Relation to Sex. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

Dehaene, Stanislas. The cognitive neuroscience of consciousness. MIT Press, 2001.

Consciousness and the Brain: Deciphering How the Brain Codes Our Thoughts. Viking Press, 2014.

Dehaene, Stanislas. Apprendre à lire. Des sciences cognitives à la salle de classe. Paris: Odile Jacob, 2011.

Dehaene S, Changeux JP. 2000. Reward-dependent learning in neuronal networks for planning and decision making. Prog Brain Res. 126 (2000): 217-29.

Dehaene S, Changeux JP. 2011. Experimental and theoretical approaches to conscious processing. Neuron 70/2 (Apr 28 2011): 200-27.

Dehaene, Stanislas and Elizabeth Brannon, editors. Space, Time and Number in the Brain. Searching for the Foundations of Mathematical Thought. Academic Press, 2011.

Dehaene, Stanislas. 1997. The number sense. New York: Oxford University Press.

Dehaene, Stanislas. 2007. Vers une science de la vie mentale. Paris: Fayard, 2007. (Inaugural Lecture at the Collège de France).

Dehaene, Stanislas. 2007a. Les neurones de la lecture. Paris: Odile Jacob.

Dehaene, Stanislas. 2007. Le cerveau humain est-il uma machine de Turing? In L’Homme artificiel. Changeux J.-P., editor. Paris : Ed. Odile Jacob.

Dehaene, Stanislas. 2009. Reading in the brain. New York: Penguin.

Dehaene, Stanislas. 2014a. Consciousness and the Brain: Deciphering How the Brain Codes Our Thoughts. Viking Adult.

Dehaene, Stanislas. 2014b. Le Code de la conscience. Paris: Odile Jacob.

Dennett, Daniel C. 2008. Autobiography Part 2. Philosophy Now (September/October 2008), p. 21-25.

Dennett, Daniel C. 2006. Breaking the spell:Religion as a natural phenomenon. Viking.

Dennett, Daniel C. 1991. Consciousness Explained. New York: Little Brown.

Dennett, Daniel C. 1995. Darwin's dangerous idea: Evolution and the meanings of life. New York: Simon & Schuster.

De Oliveira, Nythamar. 2016a. Tractatus practico-theoreticus. Porto Alegre: Editora Fi.

De Oliveira, Nythamar. 2016b. Tractatus politico-theologicus. Porto Alegre: Editora Fi.

De Oliveira, Nythamar. 2016c. On Ritalin, Adderall, and Cognitive Enhancement: Metaethics, Bioethics, Neuroethics. ethic@ 15/2 (2016)

De Oliveira, Nythamar. 2016d. Revisiting the Mind-Brain Reductionisms: Contra Dualism and Eliminativism. Veritas 61/3 (2016)

De Oliveira, Nythamar. 2014a. Reflective Equilibrium and Normative Reconstruction: Recasting the Phenomenological Deficit of Critical Theory. Ethic@ 13 (2014): 91-121.

De Oliveira, Nythamar. 2014b. Neuroethics in South America. Academic Foresights No. 12: September-December 2014. Edited by Klaus-Gerd Giesen.

De Oliveira, Nythamar. 2013. Recasting the naturalism–normativity debate: Neuroscience, neurophilosophy, neuroethics. Principios (2013): 212-231.

De Oliveira, Nythamar. 2012. "Breves Observações sobre Normatividade e Naturalismo." In Epistemologia Social. Orgs. Felipe Müller & Tiegüe Rodrigues. Porto Alegre: Edipucrs. p. 145-161.

De Oliveira, Nythamar. 2011. Gadamer, a hermenêutica e a crítica ao naturalismo: Antirrealismo moral e construcionismo social. In Ernildo Stein e Lenio Streck (eds), Hermenêutica e Epistemologia. Porto Alegre: Livraria do Advogado.

De Oliveira, Nythamar. 2009. Habemus Habermas: O universalismo ético entre o naturalismo e a religião. ethic@ 8/1 (2009): 31-50.

De Sousa, R. 1999. The Rationality of Emotion. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

De Waal, F. 1996. Good Natured: The Origins of Right and Wrong in Humans and Other Animals. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

De Waal, Frans. 2006. Primates and Philosophers: How Morality Evolved. Edited by Stephen Macedo and Josiah Ober. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

Dunbar, Robin I. M. 1998. "The Social Brain Hypothesis." Evolutionary Anthropology: Issues, News, and Reviews Volume 6, Issue 5 (1998): 178–190.

Ekman, Paul. 1972. Emotions in the Human Face. New York: Pergamon Press.

Engel, Pascal. 2011. Épistémologie pour une marquise, entretiens sur la philosophie et l’histoire naturelles qui ont paru les plus propres à rendre les jeunes gens curieux et à leur former l’esprit. Paris: Ithaque.

Engel, Pascal. 2005. (avec Julien Dutant) Philosophie de la connaissance : Croyance, connaissance, justification. Paris: Vrin.

Engel, Pascal. 2002. Truth: Central Problems of Philosophy. Mcgill Queens Univ Press.

Engel, Pascal. 2000. Believing and Accepting. Springer.

Engel, Pascal. 1996. Philosophie et psychologie. Paris: Gallimard / Folio.

Estlund, David. 2008. Democratic Authority: A Philosophical Framework. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

Farah, Martha J. 2002. Emerging ethical issues in neuroscience. Nature Neuroscience 5, p. 1123-1129.

Farah, Martha J. 2012. Neuroethics: The Ethical, Legal, and Societal Impact of Neuroscience. The Annual Review of Psychology 63: p. 571-591.

Farah, M.J., McMullen, P.A., and Meyer, M.M. 1991. Can Recognition of Living Things Be Selectively Impaired? Neuropsychologia 29 (2), p. 185–93.

Farah, Martha J. and Todd E. Feinberg, editors. 2005. Patient-Based Approaches to Cognitive Neuroscience. 2nd Edition. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press.

Fox, M.D., Greicius, M. 2010. Clinical applications of resting state functional connectivity. Frontiers in systems neuroscience 4, 19.

Franco, A.R., Ling, J., Caprihan, A., Calhoun, V.D., Jung, R.E., Heileman, G.L., Mayer, A.R. 2008. Multimodal and Multi-tissue Measures of Connectivity Revealed by Joint Independent Component Analysis. IEEE journal of selected topics in signal processing 2, 986–997.

Franks, D. 2007. Mind. In G. Ritzer (Ed.) The Blackwell Encyclopedia of Sociology, vol. 6, pp. 3055–3056. Malden, MA: Blackwell.

Gallagher, Shaun and Dan Zahavi. 2008. The Phenomenological Mind: An Introduction to Philosophy of Mind and Cognitive Science. Routledge.

Gazzaniga, Michael. 1985. The social brain. New York: Basic Books.

Geschwind, N. 1974. Selected Papers on Language and Brain. Boston Studies in the Philosophy of Science, Vol. XVI, The Netherlands: D. Reidel Publishing Company.

Giordano, James J. & Bert Gordijn. 2010. Scientific and Philosophical Perspectives in Neuroethics. Cambridge University Press.

Glannon, Walter. 2011. Brain, Body, and Mind: Neuroethics with a Human Face. Oxford University Press.

Glüer, Kathrin & Asa Wikforss,2009. "The Normativity of Meaning and Content" (Stanford Encyclopedia)

Goodin, Robert. 2003. Reflective Democracy, Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Goldman, Alvin. 2006. Simulating Minds: The Philosophy, Psychology, and Neuroscience of Mindreading. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Goodman, Kenneth. 2005. “Ethics, Evidence, and Public Policy.” Perspectives in Biology and Medicine. Vol. 48, N. 4 (Autumn 2005): 548-556.

Goodman, Kenneth. 2003. Ethics and Evidence-Based Medicine. Cambridge University Press.

Goodman, Kenneth. 1998. Ethics, Computing and Medicine: Informatics and the Transformation of Health Care. Cambridge University Press.

Habermas, Jürgen. 1976. Zur Rekonstruktion des Historischen Materialismus. Frankfurt am Main: Suhrkamp. Em port.: Para a Reconstrução do Materialismo Histórico. Trad. Carlos Nelson Coutinho. São Paulo: Brasiliense, 1990.

Habermas, Jürgen. 1979. Communication and the Evolution of Society. Trans. T. McCarthy. Boston: Beacon.

Habermas, Jürgen. 2007. Entre Naturalismo e Religião. Estudos Filosóficos. Trad. Flavio Siebeneichler. Rio de Janeiro: Tempo Brasileiro.

Honneth, Axel. 2011. Das Recht der Freiheit. Frankfurt: Suhrkamp.

Honneth, Axel and Hans Joas, eds. 1988. Social Action and Human Nature. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Korsgaard, Christine. 1992. "The Sources of Normativity" (Tanner Lectures on Human Values, 1992)

Korsgaard, Christine M. 2006. "Morality and the Distinctiveness of Human Action." In Frans de Waal, Primates and Philosophers. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2006.

Korsgaard, Christine M. 2008. The Constitution of Agency: Essays on Practical Reason and Moral Psychology. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Korsgaard, Christine M. 2009a. "Natural Motives and the Motive of Duty: Hume and Kant on Our Duties to Others." Contemporary Readings in Law and Social Justice 1, no. 2 (2009): 8–35.

Korsgaard, Christine M. 2009b. Self-Constitution: Agency, Identity, and Integrity. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Korsgaard, Christine M. 2010. "Reflections on the Evolution of Morality.” The Amherst Lecture in Philosophy 5 (2010): 1–29.

Litewka, S. 2009. “Ethical Imperialism and Populism.”In Lolas F, ed., Ethical Dimensions of Health Regulations. Santiago, Chile: Interdisciplinary Center for Bioethics. Pan American Health Organization, 2009, p. 243-260.

Mandik, P., Landreth, A.W. and Bickle, J. 2010. "The Philosophy of Neuroscience" (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy)

Meyer, Philippe. 2002. O olho e o cérebro: Biofilosofia da percepção visual. São Paulo: UNESP.

Nadelhoffer, Thomas, Eddy A. Nahmias & Shaun Nichols (eds.) 2010. Moral Psychology: Historical and Contemporary Readings. Wiley-Blackwell.

Nadelhoffer, Thomas and Walter Sinnott-Armstrong. 2012. "Neurolaw and Neuroprediction: Potential Promises and Perils." Philosophy Compass 7/9 (2012): 631–642.

Nadelhoffer, Thomas, Eddy A. Nahmias, et al. 2006. "Is Incompatibilism Intuitive?" Philosophy and Phenomenological Research. Vol. LXXIII, No. 1, July 2006.

Nichols, Shaun. 2010. "Emotions, norms, and the genealogy of fairness." politics, philosophy & economics 9 (1): 1-22.

Olson, Kevin. 2006. Reflexive Democracy: Political Equality and the Welfare State, Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press.

Owen, David S. 2010. Between Reason and History: Habermas and the idea of progress. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press.

Papineau, David. 2007. "Naturalism" (Stanford Encyclopedia)

Parfit, Derek. 2011. On What Matters, vols. I and II. Oxford University Press.

Pereira, A. Jr. 2013. “Triple aspect monism: A framework for the science of human consciousness.” In: A. Pereira Jr. and D. Lehmann eds. The Unity of Mind, Brain and World: Current Perspectives on a Science of Consciousness. Cambridge U Press.

Pereira Jr. A. 2014. “Triple-Aspect Monism: Physiological, mental unconscious and conscious aspects of brain activity.” Jnl. Integr. Neuroscience, 13(2), 201-227.

Pettit, Philip. 2002. Rules, Reasons and Norms. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Prinz, Jesse. 2002. Furnishing the Mind: Concepts and Their Perceptual Basis. MIT Press.

Prinz, Jesse. 2004a. Gut Reactions: A Perceptual Theory of Emotion. Oxford University Press.

Prinz, Jesse. 2004b. The Emotional Construction of Morals. Oxford University Press.

Prinz, Jesse. 2011. "Is Morality Innate?," in W. Sinnott-Armstrong (ed.), Moral Psychology. Oxford University Press.

Prinz, Jesse. 2012. The Conscious Brain. Oxford University Press.

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Quante, Michael. 2010. "The Structure of Perception in Particularist Ethics". Ethical Perspectives 17 (1): 5-39.

Quante, Michael. 2007. "The social nature of personal identity." Journal of Consciousness Studies 14 (5-6): 56-76.

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1. Research Program Abstract:

In our ongoing interdisciplinary research in Cognitive and Social Sciences we set out to investigate in what sense the normative claims of a social, political constructivism (Rawls) and of a formal, pragmatic reconstruction (Habermas) may be taken as instances of a weak or mitigated methodological social constructionism to the extent that both preserve the idea of objectivity in terms of a cognitivist view of moral normativity, without falling back into intuitionist realism and avoiding scientism, positivism, and reductionist versions of naturalism.
According to Habermas's weak naturalism, nature and culture are continuous with one another, hence an upshot of such a conception of social evolution is that societies evolve to a higher level only when learning occurs with respect to their normative structures. Weak naturalism allows thus for social evolutionary processes guided by normative claims, in both reflexive and social terms, with a view to realizing universalizable, valid normative claims that are justified from the moral standpoint, always generated through a reflective equilibrium, broadly conceived. As opposed to the simplistic dismissal of phenomenological, hermeneutical approaches to social evolution as being too intuitionist, unscientific, and irrational, as insinuated by rational-choice theorists such as Mario Bunge (2003), naturalism must face the normative challenges inherent in lifeworldly, reflexive practices of human agency, as Christine Korsgaard's seminal works on normativity, autonomy, and selfhood have so brilliantly shown.
Precisely because we must overcome the dualisms that oppose phenomena to noumena, facts to values, and the physical, natural world to the social, cultural norms, the neurophilosophy advocated by philosophers such as Patricia Churchland and neuroscientists like Antonio Damasio have paved the way for a proficuous interaction between naturalism and normative, social sciences. On this view, naturalism does not eliminate normativity but actually renders it reasonable, defensible, and sustainable, in articulating both biological evolution and social evolution, so as to meet the challenges of cultural relativism and the pluralism of perspectival semantic contexts without giving up on a conception of normativity --albeit not absolutist --, supporting the approach of new interfaces that can encompass the differences between mitigated conceptions of naturalism and cognitive, empirical takes on culture.
Although Churchland's naturalist version of eliminativism regarding folk psychology can be consistent with some types of functionalism, she refuses early functionalist theories such as Putnam's "machine state functionalism" and subsequent externalist variants and criticisms for describing functional states in normative or propositional reasoning as if they were inherently normative or ontologically capable of accounting for the mind-brain relationship, as in the misleading software-hardware analogy.
In the same vein, Jesse Prinz's highly original conception of transformation naturalism ("a view about how we change our views") and his seminal takes on concept empriricism, his Jamesian-inspired, perceptualist theory of emotions and half-Humean, half-Nietzschean emotionalist constructivism avoids classic, aporetic positions in moral realism and hastily dismissed versions of ethical relativism. Both Damasio's embodied-cognitivist theory of emotions and Prinz's relativist, emotional theory of morals seem indeed to favor such constructivist takes on social philosophy and help us make a case for exposing the normative and phenomenological deficits that characterize extreme views that either lack the normative, binding force of social, moral rules or overlook the moral neutrality of evolution, avoiding thus the physicalism of classic naturalism (Quine) and the intuitionism of Platonic moral realism (Moore), rationalistic innatism (Chomsky) and the postmodern, radical versions of social constructionists, rightly denounced by social epistemology as revisionism.
Overall, what I dubbed "the phenomenological deficit of critical theory" unveils the naturalist correlation of the ontological, linguistic, and intersubjective axes of sociobiological evolution, insofar as it preserves the normative force of a reasonable account of the evolution of morals. Cognitivist and noncognitivist arguments alike are thus to be revisited and reviewed as Churchland, Damasio, and Prinz reject the kinds of functionalism and reductionism that minimize the importance of embodied, social processes and point to both cognitive and noncognitive features in their naturalist analyses of the mind-brain, passions, sentiments, emotions, consciousness, selfhood, and morals, resulting in a mitigated or weak naturalism that avoids both eliminativism (which Prinz calls "naturism") and a strong culturalism ("nurturism"), extreme positions of the nature-nurture pickle. Hence, according to Churchland (2010, p. 9), "what we humans call ethics or morality is a four-dimensional scheme for social behavior that is shaped by interlocking brain processes: (1) caring (rooted in attachment to kin and kith and care for their well-being), (2) recognition of others’ psychological states (rooted in the benefits of predicting the behavior others), (3) problem-solving in a social context (e.g., how we should distribute scarce goods, settle land disputes; how we should punish the miscreants), and (4) learning social practices (by positive and negative reinforcement, by imitation, by trial and error, by various kinds of conditioning, and by analogy)."
According to Christine Korsgaard, Darwin’s sentimentalist account, like the classic accounts of normativity (voluntarism and realism) and neo-empiricist, naturalist variants (Putnam, Prinz, Churchland) are unsatisfactory, as they fail to "pay adequate attention" to the unique characteristic of "normative self-government, the capacity to be motivated to do something by the thought that you ought to do it."(2010, p.3f.) Korsgaard recasts constructivist features of normative realism, as she critically revisits Hume, Kant, and Nietzsche, exploring the innovative accounts of Reflective Endorsement and the Appeal to Autonomy so as to make a case for a procedural normative realism. We come thus full circle, as we propose to review intriguing, polemical issues of normativity and naturalism at the crossroads between critical theory and neuroscience, cognitive science and philosophy of mind.

Previous Editions of the Neuro Seminar:

Aug 9: Introduction to Neurophilosophy. Course Description and Syllabus, Bibliographies & Reading Assignments; Self-Introductions; Instructors’ Presentations: Professors Nythamar de Oliveira, Rodrigo Borges, and Fabricio Pontin
Thomas H. Champney, Essential Clinical Neuroanatomy. Wiley Blackwell, 2016.

Aug 16: Laura Guerim, Brain: A Neurobiological Intro; Nythamar: Farah, Martha J. 2002. “Emerging ethical issues in neuroscience.” Nature Neuroscience 5, p. 1123-1129.
Todd E. Feinberg and Martha J. Farah, A Historical Perspective on Cognitive Neuroscience. In Farah, Martha J.and Todd E. Feinberg, editors. 2005. Patient-Based Approaches to Cognitive Neuroscience. 2 Edition. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, Chapter I.

Aug 23: Rodrigo: Bickle, John, "Multiple Realizability", The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Spring 2016 Edition), Edward N. Zalta (ed.)
Putnam, Hilary, 1967. “Psychological Predicates,” in W.H. Capitan and D.D. Merrill (eds.), Art, Mind, and Religion, Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press, 37–48.

Aug 30: Fabricio: Annas: Imagining a New Era of Neuroimaging, Neuroethics, and Neurolaw
Koshbin: Imaging the Mind, Minding the Image: An Historical Introduction to Brain Imaging and the Law
Kolber: Will there be a Neurolaw revolution? (part I)

Sep 6: Nythamar: Martha J. Farah, M. Elizabeth Smith, Irena Ilieva and Roy H. Hamilton, Cognitive enhancement. WIREs Cogn Sci 2014, 5:95–103.
Farah, M.J., Haimm, C., Sankoorikal, G. & Smith, M.E. & Chatterjee, A. (2008). When we enhance cognition with Adderall do we sacrifice creativity? A preliminary study. Psychopharmacology,202, 541-547.

Sep 13: Fabricio: Kolber: Will there be a neurolaw revolution (part 2); Rodrigo: Fodor, Jerry, 1997. “Special Sciences: Still Autonomous After All These Years,” in Tomberlin 1997, 149–164.
Kim, Jaegwon, 1992. “Multiple Realization and the Metaphysics of Reduction,” Philosophy and Phenomenological Research, 52: 1–26.
Fodor, Jerry, 1974. “Special Sciences: Or the Disunity of Science as a Working Hypothesis,”Synthese, 28: 97–115

Sep 20: Regional Holiday (no classes held)

Sep 27: 9:00 a.m. Opening Lecture at the Auditorium Building 5 (School of Humanities), Prof. John Bolender (Unisinos), "Religious Language" [Semana Acadêmica do PPG em Filosofia da PUCRS / Programação Principal]
10:30 a.m. (Room 404 Building 5 - School of Humanities) Fabricio: Kolber: Will there be a neurolaw revolution (part 3)
Prof. Augusto Buchweitz (Brain Institute), Reading and Reading Disorders in the Brain [talk postponed - TBA]

Oct 4: 9:00 a.m. Auditorium Building 40 (Museum): Fabricio: Kolber: Will there be a neurolaw revolution (part 2)

10:45 a.m.: Talk by Prof. Dr. Peter Sloterdijk (University of Karlsruhe, Germany) at Auditorium Building 40 (Museum)

Oct 11: Nythamar: Anjan Chatterjee, Brain Enhancement in Healthy Adults. In: Chatterjee, Anjan and Martha J. Farah, editors. 2013. Neuroethics in practice. Oxford University Press, Chapter 1.
Farah, Martha J. 2012. “Neuroethics: The Ethical, Legal, and Societal Impact of Neuroscience.” The Annual Review of Psychology 63: p. 571-591

Rodrigo: Aizawa, Kenneth and Carl Gillett, 2011. “The Autonomy of Psychology in the Age of Neuroscience,” in P.M. Illari, F. Russo, and J. Williamson (eds.), Causality in the Sciences, New York: Oxford University Press, 203–223.

Oct 18: Fabricio: Kolber: Will there be a neurolaw revolution (part 2)

Oct 25: Fabricio: Oliver R. Goodenough and Micaela Tucker: Cognitive Neurosciences and the Law
Arian Petoft: Toward Human Behavior Sciences from the Perspective of Neurolaw

Nov 1: Nythamar: Martha J. Farah, Personhood, Consciousness, and Severe Brain Damage. In: Chatterjee, Anjan and Martha J. Farah, editors. 2013. Neuroethics in practice. Oxford University Press, Chapter 14.
Ilieva, I.P. & Farah, M.J. (2013). Enhancement stimulants: perceived motivational and cognitive advantages. Frontiers in Neuroscience.

Nov 8: 9:00 h: Auditório do prédio 40 (Museu)
Professora Dra Ana Sofia Carvalho (Diretora do Instituto de Bioética da Universidade Católica Portuguesa, Porto), "Integridade na Pesquisa Científica: Um quadro referencial ético para os investigadores"
10:15 am: Rodrigo: Bickle, John, 1998. Psychoneural Reduction: The New Wave, Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. (Excerpts)

Nov 15: National Holiday (no classes held)

Nov 22: Fabricio: Morse: Avoiding Irrational NeuroLaw Exuberance: A Plea for Neuromodesty

Nov 29: Farah, M.J., Illes, J., Cook-Deegan, R., Gardner, H., Kandel, E., King, P., Parens, E., Sahakian, B. and Wolpe P.R. (2004). Neurocognitive enhancement: What can we do and what should we do? Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 5, 421-425.

Dec 6: Palestra de Neuroética
Prof. Dr. Marcelo de Araujo (UFRJ / UERJ)
"Aprimoramento Cognitivo: Efeito Flynn e a Falácia dos Talentos Naturais"
Terça-feira 6/12 às 10:00 h
Sala 309 do Prédio 40 (Museu PUCRS)

Presentations / Reading Assignments (2016/1):

March 8th : “Introduction to Neurophilosophy.” Course Description and Syllabus, Bibliographies & Reading Assignments; Self-Introductions; Instructors’ Presentations: Professors Nythamar de Oliveira, Rodrigo Borges, and Fabricio Pontin.

March 15 : Nythamar: “Recasting the Naturalism-Normativity Debate”; The Social Brain (Gazzaniga, chapters 1-2, 5-8 and/or 12 – read at least 3 short chapters)

March 22 : Fabricio, Moll, Jorge et al. The neural correlates of moral sensitivity

March 29 : William Cecconello, "False Memories" / Nythamar, Gazzaniga, The Cognitive Neurosciences, Chapters 45-47

YouTube: How We Make Memories

YouTube: Loftus & Palmer - False Memory

Lost in the Mall

Stanford Encyclopedia entry on "Memory"

Daniel M. Bernstein and Elizabeth F. Loftus, "How to Tell If a Particular Memory Is True or False"

Wiki on False Memory

April 5 : Fabricio: Moll (cont'd); Jon Haidt, "The emotional dog and its rational tail"

April 12 : Rodrigo: Johnson-Laird, "How We Reason" ​Parts I and II (chapters 2-7)​

April 19 : Nythamar, Neuroscience, Neuroethics, and the Humanities; Giordano & Gordijn chapters 1 and 2; Gazzaniga, The Cognitive Neurosciences, Chapter 89

John Searle: "Consciousness in Artificial Intelligence" - Talks at Google

Ex Machina

April 26 : Nythamar, Neuroethics, Metaethics and Philosophy of Mind / Professor Alexandre Franco (InsCer), Neuroimaging

Review of R. Swinburne, Mind, Brain, and Free Will

May 3 : Rodrigo: Johnson-Laird, "How We Reason" ​Part III and IV (chapters 8-15)​

May 10 : Nythamar: Neurogenetics, Neuroethics & Cognitive Enhancement, Giordano & Gordijn chapters 8, 10 and 17 / Norman Madarasz, Biolinguistics and Neurophilosophy

May 17 : Fabricio

May 24 : Rodrigo: Johnson-Laird, "How We Reason" ​Part V and VI (chapters 16-20)​

May 31 : Rodrigo: Johnson-Laird, "How We Reason" ​Part VIII (chapters 25-28)

June 7 : Nythamar: Consciousness & Selfhood; Giordano & Gordijn chapters 3 and 4

June 14 : Fabricio

Professor Jaderson da Costa (Director of the Brain Institute - InsCer / School of Medicine, PUCRS), TBA

Reading Assignments (all texts are available in PDF at the indicated links):

Gazzaniga, Michael. 1985. The social brain. New York: Basic Books.

Giordano, James, and Bert Gordijn, eds. 2010. Scientific and Philosophical Perspectives in Neuroethics. Cambridge University Press.

Lucina Uddin, E. Aminoff et al., “The Landscape of Cognitive Neuroscience: Challenges, Rewards, and New Perspectives.” In Gazzaniga, Michael S., ed. 2005. The Cognitive Neurosciences. 4th ed. MIT Press. Chapter 89, p. 1255ff.

Johnson-Laird, Philip. 2008. How we Reason. Oxford University Press.

Haidt, Jonathan. 2001. The Emotional dog and its rational tail. Psychological Review Vol. 108. No. 4, 814-834

Haidt, Jonathan. 2003. The Moral Emotions.

Moll, Jorge et al. 2002. The neural correlates of moral sensitivity. Journal of Neuroscience Apr 22(7):2730-6

Tangney, June Price et al. 2007. Moral Emotions and Moral Behavior. Annual Review of Psychology. 58: 345–372.

Prinz, Jesse. 2007. Can Moral Obligations Be Empirically Discovered? Midwest Studies in Philosophy, XXXI (2007) : 271-291

Nythamar de Oliveira, "Recasting the Naturalism-Normativity Debate: Neuroscience, Neurophilosophy, Neuroethics." Principios 20/33 (2013): 79-103

Previous Editions of the Neuro Seminar

Reading Assignments : 2015/I

11 Aug Introduction to Neurophilosophy. Course Outline, Bibliographies & Reading Assignments; Self-Introductions: Professors Nythamar de Oliveira and Fabricio Pontin.

18 Aug Nythamar: "Recasting the Naturalism–Normativity Debate: Neuroscience, Neurophilosophy, Neuroethics" (Principios 20/33 (2013): 79-103); Bueno, Otavio and Scott A. Shalkowski, 2015, “Empirically Grounded Philosophical Theorizing.”

25 Aug Fabricio Pontin “Looking for Spinoza”, António Damasio, Chapters 1 and 2; Ethics, Baruch Spinoza, (begin part 2, “Mind”)

1 Sept Nythamar: Swinburne conference; R. Swinburne, Mind, Brain, and Free Will

8 Sept Fabricio: “Looking for Spinoza”, António Damasio, Chapter 3; Ethics, Baruch Spinoza ( end part 2 “Mind”, start part 3 “Affects”)

15 Sept Nythamar: Brogaard, 2014c, “What Can Neuroscience Tell Us About Reference?”; Bueno & Shalkowski. 2015a. “Modalism and Theoretical Virtues: Toward an Epistemology of Modality.”

22 Sept No class (Academic Week / Semana Acadêmica do PPG-Filosofia)

29 Sept Fabricio: “Looking for Spinoza”, António Damasio, Chapter 4; Ethics, Baruch Spinoza (end part 3 “Affects”)

6 Oct PUCRS undergraduate scientific research (XVI Salão de Iniciação Científica)

13 Oct National Holiday (no classes held)

20 Oct Alexandre Franco (InsCer), "Neuroimaging" / Fabricio: “Looking for Spinoza”, António Damasio, Chapter 5-6; Ethics, Spinoza

27 Oct Nythamar: Pereira, 2013. “Triple aspect monism: A framework for the science of human consciousness”; Pereira, 2014. “Triple-Aspect Monism: Physiological, mental unconscious and conscious aspects of brain activity.”

3 Nov Fabricio: “Rational Fools”, Amartya Sen, “Sympathy and impartiality – intersubjectivity as a procedural aspect of political thought experiments”, Johannes Servan, pp.41-72

3-6 Nov Neuroscience & Bioethics Colloquium (BrAINs conference I)

10 Nov Andre Locatelli (Economics, PUCRS), "Paul Zak on human behavior and oxytocin"; Johannes Servan (University of Bergen), "Individual & social choice and choice modelation"

17 Nov No class : Meeting with Capes representatives

24 Nov Neuroscience & Justice Symposium (BrAINs conference II / 7th International Symposium on Justice)

1 Dec Henrique Raskin, "Nature and Spirit in Triple-Aspect Monism"; Charles Borges, "Brain-Body-Life: Towards a panpsychist theory of embodied cognition"

Reading Assignments : 2015/I
[Norman Madarasz]
J. Fodor, LOT2: the Language of Thought Revisited. New York: Oxford University Press, 2008.
R. Jackendoff, A User's Guide to Thought and Meaning. New York: Oxford University Press, 2012.
C. R. Gallistel and A. P. King, Memory and the Computational Brain: Why Cognitive Science will Transform Neuroscience. New York: Wiley-Blackwell, 2009.

[Nythamar de Oliveira]
Churchland, Patricia S. 2011. Braintrust: What neuroscience tells us about morality. Princeton U Press.
Dunbar, Robin I. M. 1998. "The Social Brain Hypothesis." Evolutionary Anthropology: Issues, News, and Reviews Volume 6, Issue 5 (1998): 178–190.
Gazzaniga, Michael. 1985. The social brain. New York: Basic Books. Prinz, Jesse. 2004. The Emotional Construction of Morals. Oxford University Press.

[Fabricio Pontin]
Sen, Armatya. 1982 “Choice, Welfare and Measurement”, 41-109 ; 134-203; 432-450
Nowak, MA et al. “Fairness versus Reason in the Ultimatum Game”. Science 289, 1773 (2000)
Knight, Simon. “Rationality vs Anger in Ultimatum Game rejections” in http://jeps.efpsa.org/article/view/jeps.an/66
Andersen, Steffen et al. “Stakes matter in Ultimatum Games” http://openarchive.cbs.dk/bitstream/handle/10398/8244/ECON_wp1-2011.pdf?sequence=1
Zahavi, Dan. Gallagher, Shaun. “ The Phenomenological Mind: an introduction to philosophy of mind and cognitive science”, 2007

Tentative Schedule:

Tuesday Mar 10 : Introduction to Neurophilosophy: Self-Introductions, Course Outline, Bibliography, research projects, proposals, recap and results from last semester

Mar 17 : Nythamar, The Social Brain (Gazzaniga, chapters 1-2, 5-8 and 12)/ Fabricio Pontin, "Fairness Perception and the Economical Hypothesis: a limit to ordinalism?"

M. Gazzaniga on The Social Brain

Very Short Intro to the Social Brain

Mar 24 : Norman, LOT2: the Language of Thought Revisited.

Mar 31 : Norman, LOT2: the Language of Thought Revisited (ctn.) / Fabricio : Sen’s Critique of Rational Choice "Rational Fools"

Apr 7 : Fabricio, Sen "Choice, Ordering and Morality"

Apr 14 : Nythamar, The Social Brain (ChurchlandPrinz)
Pat Churchland, Braintrust, "Introduction" and chapter 3: "Caring and Caring For"
Jesse Prinz, Furnishing the Mind, chapter 8: "Overcoming Concept Nativism"

Apr 21 : National Holiday (Tiradentes)

Apr 28 : Norman, Jackendoff, A User's Guide to Thought and Meaning.

May 5 : Fabricio, Phenomenological Mind, Ch. 1-6

May 12 : Augusto Buchweitz (InsCer) / Alexandre Franco (InsCer)

May 19 : Norman, Jackendoff, A User's Guide to Thought and Meaning(ctn)

May 26 : Nythamar, The Social Brain (Dunbar)

Jun 2 : Fabricio, Phenomenological Mind, Ch. 8-9

Jun 9 : Nythamar, The Social Brain (Prinz)

Jun 16 : Norman, Gallistel and King, Memory and the Computational Brain: Why Cognitive Science will Transform Neuroscience

Jun 23 : Fabricio, Phenomenological Mind, Ch. 10 plus original article "Is a transcendental phenomenology of emotions still plausible?"

Jun 30 at 10:00 a.m. : Professor André Palmini (The Brain Institute-InsCer / Medicine, PUCRS), "The biology of human consciousness"

Past Presentations / Reading Assignments (2014/2):

Tuesday Aug 12th 8:50 h (Room 205 Building 32 Computer Science PUCRS): Introduction to Neurophilosophy: Self-Introductions, Course Outline, Bibliography, research projects, proposals, recap and results from last semester

10:00 h : Talk by Professor Dr. Jean-Christophe Merle (University of Vechta, Germany), "Is there anything principally unforgivable?"

19/08 Norman: Paul Churchland, Neurophilosophy at Work. Chapter 1: Catching Consciousness in a Recurrent Net, pp. 1-17.

26/08 Nythamar: "Recasting Naturalism & Normativity" [PDF paper]; Preface/Intro to Neuroethics; Chapter 1: Developments in Neuroscience, in Giordano J, Gordijn B. (eds.) Scientific and Philosophical Perspectives in Neuroethics. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge (2010).
www.neurobioethics.org/

2/09 Norman: Paul Churchland, Neurophilosophy at Work, Chapter 2: Functionalism at40: A Critical Retrospective, pp. 18-36

9/09 Nythamar: Giordano & Gordijn ch. 7; Fabricio Pontin, "On the relevance of arguments: the case for realism in Ethics"
Richard Dawkins, Abortion & Down Syndrome

16/09 Norman: Paul Churchland, Neurophilosophy at Work: Chapter 4: Rules, Know-How and the Future of Moral Cognition, pp. 61-74.

23/09 Nythamar: Giordano & Gordijn ch. 4; Fabricio Pontin, "Towards a mitigated conception of choice"

30/09 Norman: Noam Chomsky and Robert C. Berwick: “The Biolinguistic Program: The Current State of its Development”, in The Biolinguistic Enterprise, pp. 19-41.

7/10 Nythamar: Giordano & Gordijn ch. 5 / Prof. Cinara Nahra (UFRN), "The Ethics of Neuroscience"

14/10 Norman Paul Churchland: “Neurosemantics: On the Mapping of Minds and Portrayal of Words”, in Neurophilosophy at Work: pp.

21/10 Giordano & Gordijn ch. 6; Luis Rosa, 'What does it take for us to rationally believe that something exists?"

28/10 Semana do Encontro da ANPOF

4/11Norman. C.R. Gallistel and Adam Philip King, Memory and the Computational Brain. Why Cognitive Sciences will transform neuroscience. Chapters to be selected.

11/11 Prof. Tasia Scrutton (University of Leeds), "Can jinn be a tonic? A philosophy of religion consideration of spirit-relation belief and practice, and mental health" / Alexandre Franco (InsCer), "Neuroimaging" (Giordano & Gordijn, ch. 11)

18/11 Norman. C.R. Gallistel and Adam Philip King, Memory and the Computational Brain. Why Cognitive Sciences will transform neuroscience. Chapters to be selected.

25/11 Nythamar: Giordano & Gordijn ch. 12-13; Johnny Marques

Neurophilosophy Talks Series (Invited Speakers / In-Class Presentations):
Jaderson da Costa (Medicine, PUCRS/Director of the Brain Institute)
Cinara Nahra (UFRN / CNPq, Post-Doctoral Fellow at PUCRS)
Fabricio Pontin (The Phenomenology Research Center, Southern Illinois University/Post-Doctoral Fellow at PUCRS/Capes-PNPD)
Alexandre Franco (Electronic Engineering, PUCRS / The Brain Institute)
Augusto Buchweitz (Linguistics, PUCRS / The Brain Institute)

Prof. Norman Madarasz's contribution to the first semester of "Introduction to Neurophilosophy" focused on Daniel Dennett and Jean-Pierre Changeux’s respective contributions to the area, with considerable discussion inserted on the importance of Darwinian and neo-Darwinian models of heredity and generation. These models are especially prevalent in Dennett’s work as well as that of Richard Dawkins. One of the questions raised is what aspect of thought might, or might not, be the result of natural selection from our hominid ancestors. As we saw, an important opponent to the view that rational thought is a result of adaptation by natural selection is Noam Chomsky. This semester we shall backtrack, as it were, to the question of language and biolinguistics. While we intend to deal with authors specifically involved with the interdisciplinary challenges of neurophilosophy, we shall do so in proximity to Chomsky’s own recognition of the need for interdisciplinary research to better understand language, thought and rationality.

Prof. Nythamar de Oliveira will stick to his ongoing, interdisciplinary research program in Cognitive and Social Sciences, as we set out to investigate in what sense mitigated, transformative versions of naturalism meet the normative claims of social, political theories (esp. constructivism & pragmatic, normative reconstruction) that try to make sense of social, cultural evolution within neurobiological accounts, without falling back into intuitionist realism or the reductionist versions of physicalism, scientism, and positivism. We will be thus exploring Jesse Prinz's highly original conception of transformation naturalism ("a view about how we change our views") and his seminal takes on concept empriricism, his Jamesian-inspired, perceptualist theory of emotions and half-Humean, half-Nietzschean emotionalist constructivism, and his attentional modulation processes theory of consciousness, insofar as they successfully avoid mind/brain dualisms and aporetic, functionalist positions by focusing on the neural correlates of intermediate level representations and attention. Like António Damásio's embodiedcognitivist, integrated theory of emotions and consciousness, Prinz's relativist, emotional theory of morals and AIR (Attended Intermediate-level Representations) theory of consciousness seem indeed to favor constructivist takes on social philosophy and help us make a case for exposing the normative and phenomenological deficits that characterize extreme views that either lack the normative, binding force of social, moral rules or overlook the moral neutrality of evolution.

Past Editions of the Neuro Seminar:
Reading Assignments (2014/1):


Mar 11th : Introduction to Neurophilosophy: Self-Introductions, Course Outline, Bibliography, research projects, proposals, recap and results from last semester
Mar 18 : Prof. Norman on Andrea Moro, Boundaries of Babel (2008) [chap. 1]

Lecture Wed Mar 19th (17h30 – 19h00): Dr. Peter Gärdendors (Lund University): "How Homo Becomes Sapiens: On the Evolution of Thinking" Building 40 Ground floor Auditorium PUCRS

Mar 25 : Prof. Nythamar, "Recasting Naturalism & Normativity" [PDF paper] / Prof. Dr. Cinara Nahra (UFRN / CNPq, Post-Doctoral Fellow, PUCRS), "Neuroscience of ethics: the state of art and the promises for the future"

Apr 1st : Prof. Norman on Ruth G. Millikan, Language: a Biological Model [chap 1-3]
Apr 8 : Prof. Nythamar, "Intro to Jesse Prinz's Trilogy" / Fabricio Pontin, TBA
Apr 15 : Prof. Norman on Ruth Millikan, Language: a Biological Model [chaps 4-6]
Apr 22 : Prof. Nythamar on Prinz's Concept Empiricism
Apr 29 : Prof. Norman on Ruth Millikan, Language: a Biological Model [chaps. 7-8]
May 6 : Prof. Nythamar on Prinz's Theory of Emotions / Prof. Dr. Augusto Buchweitz (Linguistics, PUCRS / The Brain Institute)
May 13 : Prof. Norman on Ruth Millikan, Language: a Biological Model [chaps. 9-10]
May 20 : Prof. Nythamar on Prinz's Emotional Construction of Morals
May 27 : Prof. Norman on Consciousness Inside and Out [Parts I and VI]
June 3 : Prof. Nythamar on Jesse Prinz's The Conscious Brain
Margolis & Laurence, "The Ontology of Concepts"
Edouard Machery, "Concepts Are Not a Natural Kind"
June 10 : Prof. Norman on "Consciousness Inside and Out"
June 17 : No classes : "FIFA Recess" !
June 24 : Prof. Dr. Jaderson da Costa (Director of the Brain Institute / InsCer), "Regeneration of Brain and Mind" / Prof. Nythamar on Prinz's Theory of Consciousness

Reading Assignments (all books available on Kindle or in PDF at our Dropbox):
[Prof. Norman Madarasz:]
1. Andrea Moro, The Boundaries of Babel. The Brain and the Enigma of Impossible Languages. Translated from Italian by Ivano Caponigro and Daniel B. Kane, and with a foreword by Noam Chomsky. Cambridge Mass.: MIT Press, 2008.
2. Ruth Garrett Millikan, Language: A Biological Model. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2005.
3. Consciousness Inside and Out: Phenomenology, Neuroscience and the Nature of Experience. Edited by R. Brown. New York: Springer, 2014.

[Prof. Nythamar de Oliveira:]
4. J. Prinz, Furnishing the mind: Concepts and their perceptual basis. MIT Press, 2002.
5. J. Prinz, Gut Reactions: A Perceptual Theory of Emotion. Oxford U Press, 2004.
6. J. Prinz, The Emotional Construction of Morals. Oxford University Press, 2004.
7. J. Prinz, The Conscious Brain. Oxford University Press, 2012.

PROGRAMA 2013/2: Neurofilosofia, Normatividade e Teoria Crítica

PROFESSOR: Nythamar de Oliveira
DISCIPLINA: Teorias da Justiça, Ética & Filosofia Social I - CODICRED: 61613-03 CRÉDITOS: 03
Sextas-feiras 14 horas Sala 305 / Prédio 32 (Faculdade de Informática - FACIN - PUCRS)

Clique aqui para baixar Ementa do "Seminário em Neurofilosofia"

1. Ementa :

Neste seminário, que dá continuidade a nossas investigações e discussões em teoria crítica, normatividade e naturalismo, devemos explorar o enfoque da neurofilosofia social de forma a responder aos desafios normativos de modelos construtivistas (Rawls) e reconstrutivos (Habermas, Honneth) da razão pública e das instituições e práticas sociais em sociedades democráticas pluralistas, à luz das mais importantes contribuições recentes das ciências cognitivas e neurociências, focando os problemas correlatos da evolução social, do "cérebro social" e da racionalidade social.

2. Metodologia:

Trata-se de um curso expositivo-participativo, no qual serão requeridas leituras semanais, apresentações orais e a participação do aluno nos debates e workshops. Pré-requisito: proficiência em inglês.


3. Avaliação:

Freqüência obrigatória. Apresentação oral (pelo menos uma, em sala de aula). No final do semestre, entrega de um trabalho escrito (paper de 20 ou mais páginas; tópico e bibliografia a serem previamente discutidos com o professor).


4.1 CRONOGRAMA de Apresentações

Aug 16 : Introduction to Neurophilosophy (a.m.)
p.m.: Introdução à Neurofilosofia à luz da Problemática "Naturalismo, Normatividade e Teoria Crítica" : Filosofia da Mente, Ciências Cognitivas, Ética e Filosofia Social

Nythamar de Oliveira, "O Déficit Normativo do Ethos Democrático Brasileiro"

Aug 19 : 9:00 h : Neurophilosophy Talks Series / Ciclo de Palestras em Neurofilosofia (InsCer) : Barry Smith (Centre for the Study of the Senses - CenSes, Institute of Philosophy, School of Advanced Study, University of London, "Are flavours in the brain?"

6th International Symposium on Justice : "Social Justice, Law and Ethics" : 19-23 August - Auditorium FFCH - PUCRS

Aug 20 : Barry Smith (CenSes, University of London), "The Neuroscience of Responsibility"

Aug 21 : 6th International Symposium on Justice: Roundtable on Neuroethics Adriano Brito, Cinara Nahra, Maria Borges, Noel Struchiner

Aug 30 : Nythamar de Oliveira, "Recasting the Naturalism–Normativity Debate: Neuroscience, Neurophilosophy, Neuroethics" (Principios 20/33 (2013): 79-103) / Pat Churchland, Braintrust, chapters 1 (Intro) & 2

Pat Churchland on Neuromorality

p.m.: Maria Salett Biembengut (Mathematics, PUCRS)
Thomas Nagel, "What Is It Like to Be a Bat?", in David Chalmers, Phil. of Mind, p. 219-226.
Ned Block, "Concepts of Consciousness" (Chalmers, p. 206-218)
A. Damásio, Self Comes to Mind (2010); Prinz, The Conscious Brain (2012)

Sep 6 : Norman Madarasz, Molding Phenomenology into Neurophilosophy: Daniel Dennett’s Consciousness Explained.

p.m.: Nagel / neurofenomenologia / Espinosa

Sep 13 : Nythamar de Oliveira : Pat Churchland, Braintrust, chapter 3 / Luis Rosa (Rutgers)

p.m.: Cinara Nahra, "A revolução na ética e na metafísica causada pela neurociência e pela biotecnologia" / Espinosa / Damasio /Vicente Gomes de Melo Filho, "Afecções: Uma Releitura, a partir de António Damásio, das Emoções em Espinosa"

Sep 20 : Regional Holiday

Sep 27 : Norman Madarasz, The Darwinian Supplement to Philosophy of Mind: Daniel Dennett’s Darwin’s Dangerous Idea.

p.m.: Espinosa / Damasio / Fabricio Pontin (The Phenomenology Research Center, Southern Illinois University), "Is there a general paradox of choice? on ordinalism and decision"

Oct 4 : Nythamar de Oliveira : Churchland, BT, chapter 4 / Fabricio Pontin (The Phenomenology Research Center, Southern Illinois University), "Is there a general paradox of choice? on ordinalism and decision"

p.m.: Philip Pettit, Rules, Reasons and Norms, cap. 1 / Fabricio Pontin, "This is your mind, this is your mind in order: A phenomenological interpretation of utility"

Oct 11 : Norman Madarasz: The Search for a Trans-Scientific Model: Hodgson and Knudsen’s Darwin’s Conjecture.

p.m.: Pascal Engel, "Epistemic norms and rationality" / Carlos Ferreira, "A Dicotomia Fato-Valor em Putnam & Sen"

Artigos do Prof. Pascal Engel sobre epistemologia social, crenças e teoria da normatividade

Oct 18 : Nythamar de Oliveira : Pat Churchland, Braintrust, chapter 5 / Fabricio Pontin, "This is your mind, this is your mind in order: A phenomenological interpretation of utility"

p.m.: Leonardo Schaefer, Chalmers, Cap 24: Ned Block, "Concepts of Consciousness" (p.206); Pascal Engel, "Mind And Normativity"

Oct 25 : Norman Madarasz: Jean-Pierre Changeux and Stanislas Dehaene: Neurophilosophy in France

p.m.: Charles Borges, "Badiou, Deleuze e a questão do vitalismo"
Badiou's Deleuze book
Dan Smith on Badiou-Deleuze ontology and mathematics

Nov 1 : Alexandre Franco (Electronic Engineering), "What's going on in the brain"

Nythamar de Oliveira / Pat Churchland, Braintrust, chapter 6

p.m.: Nythamar de Oliveira, "Naturalism, Normativity and the Neurophenomenological Deficit of Critical Theory"
Santos, Boaventura de Sousa. "Por que é tão difícil construir uma teoria crítica?" Revista Crítica de Ciências Sociais, 54, 197-215.
John Sarnecki, "Weaving a web: Concept acquisition and inferential role." Veritas 57 / 3 (2012): 138-162.
John Sarnecki, "The Emergence of Empathy in the Context of Cross-Species Mind Reading."In: Liz Swan (ed.), Origins of Mind. Springer Netherlands. Biosemiotics Volume 8 (2013): 129-142.

Nov 8 : Norman Madarasz: The question of Foundations: The Changeux-Alain Connes Debate.

p.m.: Elielton de Sousa, "Compreendendo o Naturalismo"

Nov 15 : National Holiday

YouTube clip: Patricia Churchland - Braintrust: What Neuroscience Tells Us About Morality

TED clip : Peter Mende-Siedlecki, Should you trust your first impression?

TED Talk clip: Colin Camerer: Neuroscience, game theory, monkeys

Nov 22 : Nythamar de Oliveira / Pat Churchland, Braintrust, chapter 7 / Cinara Nahra (UFRN), "Does neuroscience show that free will does not exist?"

p.m.: Mohamed Parrini, A. Damasio, "O erro de Decartes" / Eric D. Beinhocker, "The Origin of Wealth"

Nov 29 : Norman Madarasz: Language and Mind in John Searle’s Theory of Consciousness

p.m.: Fernando Oliveira, "Realismo Político nas Relações Internacionais e Escolha Racional"
"Political Realism" - Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy

Dec 6 : Nythamar de Oliveira: Pat Churchland, Braintrust, chapter 8 / Stéphane Dias, "Communicative Rationality"

p.m.: Felipe Karasek

Dec 13 : 9 a.m.: Charles Borges: "Brain-Body-Life: Deleuze and Damásio," Norman Madarasz: "Critical Neurophilosophy"

2 p.m.: Johnny Marques, "Enacting empathy as co-originary, socio-neurophenomenological operator of subjective temporality: Towards a SSmAC-model of neuro(inter)subjective time" (SSmAC = Socio-Sensorimotor-Affective-Cognitive)

Invited Speakers / In-Class Presentations :

Jaderson da Costa (Medicine, PUCRS/The Brain Institute)

Alexandre Franco (Electronic Engineering, PUCRS/The Brain Institute)

Rochele Paz Fonseca (Psychology, PUCRS)

Graduate Students (PUCRS)

2013/1

12/03 : Introdução à Neurofilosofia à luz da Problemática "Naturalismo, Normatividade e Teoria Crítica"

Neurophilosophy Talks Series / Ciclo de Palestras em Neurofilosofia (8:50-10:30 h)

19/03: Prof. Jaderson da Costa (PPG-Medicina, PUCRS/InsCer), "O cérebro triúno"

26/03: Fabricio Pontin (The Phenomenology Research Center, Southern Illinois University - Carbondale), "Dois modelos de consciência" [click here for Prezi]

02/04: Prof. Augusto Buchweitz (PPG-Liguística, PUCRS/InsCer), "As bases neurais da nossa representação semântica e psicológica", Prof. Alexandre Franco (PPG-Engenharia Elétrica, PUCRS/InsCer), "As bases para 'enxergar' o funcionamento do cérebro"

09/04: Profa. Cinara Nahra (PPG-Filosofia, UFRN), "Neuroethics"

16/04: I Workshop Understanding Naturalism : 15-16 abril Sala 352 Faculdade de Educação (FaE / UFPel)

23/04: Prof. Norman Madarasz (PPG-Filosofia, PUCRS), "Changeux et la recherche neurophilosophique en France"

30/04: Charles Borges, "Deleuze e a 4EA theory" / Minds and Brains Blog on 4EA Cognitive Science

07/05: Prof. Jaime Parera Rebello (PPG-Filosofia, UFRGS), "Intencionalidade"
Artigo: J. Rebello, "Modalidade e Identidade Transmudana" Veritas 57/2 (2012)
Entry on "Intentionality" in the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy
Nythamar de Oliveira, "A Neurophilosophy of Emotions in Damasio & Prinz"
Entry on "Emotion" in the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy
Jesse Prinz's papers & books

14/05: Profa. Rochele Paz Fonseca (PPG-Psicologia, PUCRS), "Neuropsicologia cognitiva: a tomada de decisão como uma das funções executivas"
Wiki on Iowa gambling task
Iowa gambling task demo
Bechara, Damasio et al., "Insensitivity to future consequences following damage to human prefrontal cortex"
Bechara, Damasio & Damasio, "Emotion, Decision Making and the Orbitofrontal Cortex"

21/05: Prof. Sabino Porto (PPG-Economia, UFRGS), Escolha Racional e Teoria dos Jogos
Ken Binmore, Intro to Game Theory
SEP on Evolutionary Game Theory
Wiki on Ken Binmore
Wiki on Martin Nowak

28/05: 10:00 h : Profa. Renata Vieira (PPG-Ciência da Computação, PUCRS), "Computação e linguagens (naturais e artificiais)"
Wiki on Natural Languages
Wiki on Natural Language Processing
SEP on Innateness & Language
SEP on Logic & AI

04/06: Jozivan Guedes de Lima, "A. Damasio e o Erro de Descartes" / José Elielton de Sousa, "Alasdair MacIntyre e o naturalismo ético"

11/06: Felipe Karasek, "Nietzsche: Naturalismo, Neodarwinismo e Evolução" / Leonardo Schaefer, Bennett-Hacker, Fund. Filos. Neuroc., capítulo 14

18/06: Não teremos aula! Semana Acadêmica PPG-Filosofia,Palestra do Prof. Eduardo Luft (PUCRS): "Filosofia e Ciência" às 9:00 h, Auditório FFCH

24/06 (segunda-feira): Outorga do título de Doctor Honoris Causa ao Prof. Dr. António Damásio (Brain and Creativity Institute, University of Southern California), às 10h30min no Auditório do Prédio 9 (Fac de Arquitetura, PUCRS)

25/06 (terça-feira): Profa. Maria Salett Biembengut (PPG-Matemática, PUCRS), "Modelos e Modelagem em Matemática"
SEP on Model Theory
SEP on Models in Science
Wiki on Computational Neuroscience
Mental Models Blog

02/07 (terça-feira): 9:00 h : Vanessa Nicola Labrea, "Ponto material, instante temporal: como Louis De Broglie e Jacques Monod podem indicar que o Einstein de Bergson (Durée et Simultanéité) e o Darwin de Bergson (L'évolution Créatrice) derivam do mesmo problema: a passagem de um dualismo a um subjetivismo -- e o que isso pode ensinar à Neurofilosofia" / Johnny Marques, "Ação e emoção como co-fatores de constituição do tempo neurofenomenológico"

4.2 CRONOGRAMA de Leituras (2013/I):

19/03: Churchland, Intro, chapters 1 & 2
26/03: Churchland, chapters 6 & 7
02/04: Churchland, chapters 8 & 9
09/04: Putnam, "Meaning and Reference" / "Psychological Predicates"
16/04: Putnam, "Three Kinds of Scientific Realism"
23/04: Korsgaard, 1992 & 2010
30/04: Damasio, Chapters 1, 2 & 3
07/05: Prinz, Preamble, Chapters 1 & 8
14/05: Damasio, Chapters 4, 5 & 6
21/05: Prinz, Chapters 2 & 3
28/05: Damasio, Chapters 7, 8 & 9
04/06: Damasio, Chapters 10 & 11
11/06: Prinz, Chapters 4 & 5
18/06: Prinz, Chapters 6 & 7

5. Related Links:

"Recasting the naturalism–normativity debate: Neuroscience, Neurophilosophy, Neuroethics," Principios (2013): 212-231

Academic Foresights: Neuroethics in South America

Instituto do Cérebro : InsCer

Grupo de Pesquisa em Neurofilosofia - CNPq - Plataforma Lattes

Critical Theory Seminar at PUCRS (Habermas, Honneth, Benhabib)

Brain and Creativity Institute (USC)

Patricia Smith Churchland Home Page

Antonio Damasio Website

Jesse Prinz Personal Website

Otavio Bueno Personal Website

Dr Berit Brogaard Lab

Lucina Q. Uddin Web Page

Brain Connectivity and Cognition Laboratory (U Miami)

Elsevier : Brain Blogger

Elsevier : Global Neuroscience Initiative Foundation (GNIF)

Elsevier : Neuroscience Journals

Professor Otavio Bueno's Online Papers

Hilary Putnam Bibliography

Putnam resources page

Thomas Nadelhoffer Homepage

Barry Smith Page

International Neuroethics Society

Brainblogger : Neuroscience & Neurology

Social cognition and social neuroscience lab (Princeton)

YouTube Talk: Daniel Dennett, "Is Religion Man-Made? How Did Religion Start? The Evolution of Belief" ("Breaking the Spell: Religion as a Natural Phenomenon")

Intro TED Best Flips clip: "The Big Story: Origins of Religion"

Dr. Antonio Damasio on "Self Comes to Mind" (YouTube)

Antonio Damasio, "Human Decisions"

Antonio Damasio, "When Emotions Make Better Decisions"

Patricia Churchland on Neuroscience and Materialism

Patricia Churchland on Neurophilosophy

Patricia Churchland - Braintrust: What Neuroscience Tells us about Morality

John Searle -Consciousness and Causality

H. Putnam on the philosophy of science

Hilary Putnam on the fact-value distinction

Hilary Putnam Brains in a Vat Summary

Patricia Churchland & Noam Chomsky on Neuroscience, Mysteries and Problems

The Human Brain Anatomy and Functions

How The Human Brain Works

Ned Block's NYT book review of Damasio's "Self Comes to Mind"

Wiki on "The Concept of Mind"

Summary of "The Concept of Mind"

Wiki on Neurophilosophy

Wiki on Philosophy

PhilPapers: Philosophy of Neuroscience

Wiki on Mary's Room (The knowledge argument)

Synapses, Neurons and Brains (The Hebrew U of Jerusalem)

Wiki on Searle's "Chinese Room"

Jonah Lehrer's "Wired Science" book review

Steven Rose's "The Guardian" book review

Noem Bearrentine's "Short Version" bok review

On Axel Honneth's theory of freedom

"Brain Science Podcast": Ginger Campbell

Neurophenomenology Page

Social Brain (RSA - Action and Research Center)

The Royal Society: The social brain

Robin I.M. Dunbar, "The Social Brain Hypothesis"

Dr James Hawkins's "Good Medicine" book review

Filosofia Experimental

Instituto D'Or

Simon Blackburn's Web Page (University of Cambridge / UNC-Chapel Hill)

YouTube: Neuroscience of Emotions

Jesse Prinz's lecture about morality

Jesse Prinz, "Waiting for the Self"

Jesse J. Prinz on The Limits of Consciousness at the New York Psychoanalytic Society and Institute

J.J. Prinz's Experimental Philosophy

David Chalmers, Science of Consciousness

Conferencia de Jesse Prinz, PUC-Peru: "Emociones y moral"

YouTube: Robert Brandom on pragmatism and language (Part 1)

Robert Brandom on pragmatism and language (Part 2)

Human Ancestry Made Easy

The Evolution of Homo Sapiens

Philosophy and Cognitive Science (Jesse Prinz)

PowerPoint: Steve Levinson, "Disconnect between Intention and Action"

PowerPoint: "Philosophy of emotions"

Luis Rosa, "A question on justification and normativity"

Ernest Sosa, "Epistemic Normativity"

Philosophy of Mind Biblio

Prof. João Teixeira: Site "Filosofia da Mente no Brasil"

Distropia: Blog de Filosofia"

YouTube: Jesse Prinz, "Is this a good moment for ethics?"

Wall Street Journal: How the Brain's Wiring Works

YouTube: Prinz on Morality

IEP Theories of emotion

IEP on Concepts

Jesse Prinz's CUNY Page

Shaun Gallagher's Home Page

Shaun Gallagher, "Moral Agency, Self-Consciousness, and Practical Wisdom"

Shaun Gallagher, "Strong interaction and self-agency." Humana-Mente: Journal of Philosophical Studies 15 (2011): 55-76

Shaun Gallagher, Neurophilosophy and neurophenomenology

Alvin Goldman at the Collège de France (March 2012): "Institutional social epistemology"

Alvin Goldman, "Why Social Epistemology Is Real Epistemology"

meta-metaphysics Chalmers et al.

Edouard Machery (University of Pittsburgh) on "Did Morality Really Evolve?"

Philosophy TV: Edouard Machery and Jesse Prinz on concepts, philosophy and psychology

The trolley problem

Daniel Dennett: Freedom evolves

Connectome

The Free Dictionary

Volume sobre pesquisas interdisiciplinares (cf. artigo de Almeida)

Brain Institute at PUCRS (Instituto do Cerebro)

"Applied Ethics" Website

"Medical Ethics" Website

Hume Seminar (undergraduate)

Website Epistemologia Moral

Nythamar de Oliveira, Habermas e o Naturalismo

Wikipedia on Cognitive Science

Wikipedia sobre Ciência Cognitiva

YouTube: Daniel Dennett, Consciousness and Free Will

YouTube: António Damásio, Neurociências

YouTube: António Damásio, What role do emotions play in consciousness?

YouTube: António Damásio, The quest to understand consciousness

YouTube: Facundo Manes & Ivan Izquierdo, Los Enigmas del Cerebro –Memoria (Parte 1)

Website Ética Geral

Website Habermas

Website do Prof. Nythamar

Dr Miguel Nicolelis: Brain Control Brain (YouTube)

Tractatus practico-theoreticus (Editora Fi / EDUCS, 2016)

Tratactus ethico-politicus (Edipucrs, 1999)

Tractatus politico-theologicus (Editora Fi / EDUCS, 2016)

"Work in Progress": Breves Observações sobre Normatividade e Naturalismo

Sociedade Brasileira de Filosofia Analítica, Fortaleza

S. Choudhury, S. Nagel and J. Slaby, "Critical Neuroscience: Linking Neuroscience and Society through Critical Practice"

PHIL 3750 Social and Political Philosophy

REL 1220-011 WORLD RELIGIONS and GLOBALIZATION

Critical Theory Seminar: Habermas and Honneth

In God's Name: Reformed, Catholic, Jewish

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